Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce a diverse array of toxic or otherwise bioactive metabolites. These allelochemicals may also play a role in defense against potential predators and grazers, particularly aquatic invertebrates and their larvae, including mosquitoes. Compounds derived from cyanobacteria collected from the Florida Everglades and other Florida waterways were investigated as insecticides against the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a vector of dengue and yellow fever. Screening of cyanobacterial biomass revealed several strains that exhibited mosquito larvicidal activity. Guided via bioassay guided fractionation, a non-polar compound from Leptolyngbya sp. 21-9-3 was found to be the most active component. Characterization revealed the prospective compound to be a monounsaturated fatty acid with the molecular formula C16H30O2. This is the first evidence of mosquito larvicidal activity for this particular fatty acid. With larvicidal becoming more prevalent, fatty acids should be explored for future mosquito control strategies.