The possibility of creating superconductivity in Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) by means of doping was investigated. Bulk HOPG samples were doped with phosphorous using either ion-implantation or by Chemical Vapor Deposition growth with phosphine in the gas mixture. The methods for testing the graphene samples, once doped, were done by performing R vs. T measurements, and determining via observation suppressed superconductive characteristics signaling the presence of the Meissner Effect in a strong applied magnetic field. Before doping, the resistance vs. temperature (R vs. T) characteristic of the HOPG was measured. The R vs. T characteristic was again measured after doping, and for surface multilayers of graphene exfoliated from the post doped bulk sample. A 100 to 350 mT magnetic field was supplied, and the R vs. T characteristic was re-measured on a number of samples.
Phosphorous-implanted HOPG samples exhibit deviations from the expected rise in resistance as the temperature is reduced to some point above 100 K. The application of a modest magnetic field reverses this trend. A step in resistance at a temperature of approximately 50-60 K in all of the samples is clearly observed, as well as a second step at 100-120 K, a third at a temperature range of 150-180 K and a fourth from about 200-240 K. A response consistent with the presence of magnetic field flux pancake vortices in phosphorous implanted HOPG and in phosphorous-doped exfoliated multilayer graphene has been observed. The lack of zero resistance at low temperatures is also consistent with pancake vortex behaviour in the flux-flow regime. The presence of magnetic vortices requires, and is direct evidence of superconductivity.