A programmatic series of three studies developed and evaluated the Condom Barriers Scale (CBS), an instrument measuring women's perceived barriers to condom use for prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Following item generation and selection, Study 1 evaluated the CBS in a sample of minority women (N = 178), reduced the number of items, assessed the factor structure, evaluated the internal consistency, and explored the convergent validity of the CBS. In Study 2, the CBS was administered to a cross-validation sample (N = 278). Confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency were compared against the original sample and construct, criterion, and discriminant validity were assessed. In Study 3 (N = 30), temporal stability of the CBS was evaluated. The resulting instrument appears to have sound psychometric properties and can be used to measure a key construct in the leading theoretical models of health behavior for which a measure with known psychometric properties previously has not been available.