Early trypsin is a female-specific protease present in the midgut of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti during the first 46 h after ingestion of a blood meal. Transcription of the early trypsin gene occurs after adult emergence under control of juvenile hormone, but the transcript remains untranslated before feeding. Early trypsin was in vitro translated using mRNA extracted from midguts of unfed and fed females, indicating that there are not structural features in the early trypsin mRNA that impede translation in vitro. Eight single protein meals exhibiting different molecular weights and amino acid composition, as well as ingestion of several amino acid mixtures of different complexity, had the ability to prompt early trypsin translation. In contrast, ingestion of saline, latex or midgut-filling sugars were unable to induce early trypsin mRNA translation. In addition intra-thoracic injection of an amino acid solution induced early trypsin translation, while injection of saline or albumin failed. In summary an increase in the size of the midgut amino acid pool by feeding or injection of an amino acid solution was sufficient to induce translation of early trypsin mRNA; 35S-labeled amino acids, fed with a protein meal, were incorporated into newly synthesized early trypsin; the first phase of trypsin synthesis is likely induced by an initial rapid increase in the concentration of amino acids in the midgut cells after ingestion of a blood meal.