Xanthine oxidase-catalyzed reduction of estrogen quinones to semiquinones and hydroquinones Article

Roy, D, Kalyanaraman, B, Liehr, JG. (1991). Xanthine oxidase-catalyzed reduction of estrogen quinones to semiquinones and hydroquinones . 42(8), 1627-1631. 10.1016/0006-2952(91)90433-6

cited authors

  • Roy, D; Kalyanaraman, B; Liehr, JG

fiu authors


  • Metabolic redox cycling between the stilbene estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) and diethylstilbestrol-4′,4″-quinone (DES Q) has been demonstrated previously. The xanthine and xanthine oxidase-catalyzed reduction of estrogen quinone has been studied in this work to understand the role of metabolic redox cycling in estrogen metabolism. Xanthine and xanthine oxidase catalyzed the reduction of DES Q to 44% Z-DES and 9% E-DES. This reaction was inhibited by the addition of superoxide dismutase or by a lack of oxygen (under anaerobic conditions). DES Q was also reduced in a non-enzymatic reaction by superoxide radicals generated by potassium superoxide and crown ether. The reaction between the O2 and DES Q was also investigated by an electron spin resonance spintrapping technique. The superoxide anion generated in an oxygen-saturated xanthine and xanthine oxidase system was detected as 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-1-oxide-superoxide adduct. The addition of DES Q or 2,3-estradiol quinone totally inhibited the formation of this adduct. The reduction of DES Q by superoxide radicals was taken as evidence that this reaction was one possible mechanism of xanthine and xanthine oxidase-mediated reduction. In addition, reduction of DES Q by direct electron transfer to quinone by the enzyme may also occur. The intermediate formation of semiquinone free radicals in the reduction is implied by the nature of the single electron transfer reactions and, in addition, has been demonstrated for the catechol estrogen by electron spin resonance measurements. It is concluded that the reduction of estrogen quinones to their hydroquinones by xanthine oxidase occurs by both one electron transfer to the quinone and by formation of superoxide which then reduces the quinone. © 1991.

publication date

  • September 27, 1991

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

start page

  • 1627

end page

  • 1631


  • 42


  • 8