It is suspected that endocrine-disrupting pesticides are involved in the development of several cancer and noncancer health risks in humans and wildlife. A large number of pesticides show endocrine-disrupting activities. The potential for human and animal exposure to such pesticides is very high. Farmers, as a group, may be particularly at risk, because they are subject to higher-than-average levels of exposure to pesticides over longer-than-average periods. Recent studies have shown that the incidence of hormone-related organ cancers, or hormonal cancers, is elevated among farmers. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting pesticides, particularly to DDT and phenoxy herbicides, is suspected of involvement in some of these hormonal cancers. There is a clear need for a refined epidemiological study that focuses on specific pesticides, accurately assesses exposure; and then examines any association between pesticides and hormonal cancers among farmers.