OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine whether interceed oxidized regenerated cellulose (Johnson and Johnson Medical, Arlington, Tex.), because of its polyanionic nature, may complete for the macrophage scavenger receptor. STUDY DESIGN: RAW macrophages were incubated with interceed oxidized regenerated cellulose and known scavenger receptor ligands. The production of interleukin-1β by mouse peritoneal macrophages was measured in the presence of interceed cellulose. RESULTS: When macrophages were incubated with interceed cellulose, increasing concentrations inhibited the uptake of fluorescent acetyl low-density lipoprotein. In the presence of interceed cellulose there was a decrease in the production of interleukin-1β by mouse macrophages. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the interaction of interceed oxidized regenerated cellulose with macrophages with scavenger receptors may result in a decreased secretion of matrix components, inflammatory mediators, and cellular growth factors. Thus interceed cellulose may function as a biologic barrier in preventing adhesions.