Patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a greatly increased risk of kidney disease, due in part to HIV-associated nephropathy and commonly used nephrotoxic medications. The cutaneous manifestations of HIV are a vast spectrum of disorders including exaggerated or atypical presentations of common diseases, opportunistic infections, and adverse medication reactions. A dermatologic sign or symptom may be the first presentation of an occult HIV infection. Many cutaneous manifestations of HIV are correlated with CD4 T-cell count, such that skin diseases may progress more rapidly or present in an atypical fashion as immune status deteriorates. The introduction of effective antiretroviral treatment has modified the course of the disease while simultaneously introducing its own complications including medication reactions, lipodystrophy syndrome, and the immune reconstitution syndrome.