This study examined the effects of computer access and computer use on the science achievement of elementary school students, with focused attention on the effects for racial and linguistic minority students. The study used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K) database and conducted statistical analyses with proper weights and design-effect adjustments. After controlling for age, gender, prior science performance, and family socioeconomic level, the effects of computer access and computer use on English Language Learners (ELL) and on English-speaking students were examined and compared by subdividing the participants into four racial groups: Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Asian. The results revealed that access to home computers and purposeful computer use had positive effects on the science performance of English-speaking students. In contrast, mere frequent computer use by English-speaking students yielded negative effects. Home computer access for ELL students indicated negative effects, especially for Hispanic ELL students. Frequent computer use also indicated negative effects for African-American and Hispanic English-speaking students, and for Asian ELL students. These results enhance our understanding of computer use in regard to science learning, and provide implications for future practice.