Surgical resection for localization-related epilepsy has recently become a generally accepted treatment in children. Evidence of the poor outcome in natural history studies of temporal lobe epilepsy in childhood initiated consideration of surgical intervention. Subsequent favorable outcome following surgery was encouraging. A number of variables differentiate adults with focal seizures from children. Evolving biologic factors modify the clinical and electroencephalographic expression of seizures in childhood. The pathologic substrate is different, and there is a higher incidence of extratemporal epilepsy. Chronic seizures beginning under age 2 years rarely remit, especially when associated with a demonstrable structural lesion. Behavioral consequences of chronic seizures are significant and become a major problem by adolescence if seizures are not controlled. Early surgery results in superior functional outcome, although subtle deficits persist postoperatively. Surgical outcome is as favorable as in adults with improvements in behavioral status and socialization. Abundant data exist to more adequately assess the benefits and risks of surgery in children so that intervention is not deferred longer than it needs to be.