In the early 1990s, different authors independently developed techniques for pelvic and paraaortic lymph node sampling. Since then, laparoscopic lymphadenectomy has been demonstrated to yield the same number of nodes when compared with the laparotomic approach. Only one microscopically involved lymph node was lost at laparoscopic lymphadenectomy when a laparotomic control followed immediately after. It seems bleeding, which is the most serious perioperative complication, is more common during laparoscopic lymphadenectomy than during laparotomy; however, the incidence will decrease with experience of the surgeon. The laparoscopic procedure does not seem to influence negatively the survival of patients with early stage endometrial and cervical cancer. There does not seem to be a significant reduction in overall hospital charges for laparoscopic surgery in oncology, but patients who undergo laparoscopic surgery recover significantly sooner than those who undergo laparotomy.