This paper reviews behavioral, physiological, anatomical, and ecological aspects of sound and vibration detection by decapod crustaceans. Our intent is to demonstrate that despite very limited work in this area in the past 20 years, evidence suggests that at least some decapod crustaceans are able to detect and use sounds in ways that parallel detection and processing mechanisms in aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates. Some aquatic decapod crustaceans produce sounds, and many are able to detect substrate vibration at sensitivities sufficient to tell of the proximity of mates, competitors, or predators. Some semi-terrestrial crabs produce and use sounds for communication. These species detect acoustic stimuli as either air- or substrate-borne energies, socially interact in acoustic "choruses," and probably use "calls" to attract mates.