The discipline of neurodesign is a highly interdisciplinary one, while at the same time in the process of maturing towards real-life applications. The breakthrough about to be achieved is to close the loop in communication between neural systems and electronic and mechatronic systems and actually let the nervous system adapt to the feedback from the man-made systems. To master this loop, scientists need a sound understanding of neurology, from the cellular to the systems scale, of man-made systems and how to connect the two. These scientists comprise medical scientists, neurologists and physiologists, engineers, as well as biophysicists. And they need the topics in a coherently written work with chapters building upon another. 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. All rights reserved.