- Dey, BR; McAfee, S; Colby, C; Sackstein, R; Saidman, S; Tarbell, N; Sachs, DH; Sykes, M; Spitzer, TR
- In an attempt to capture graft-versus-tumor effects without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), the authors initiated a trial of nonmyeloablative allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies, with the majority of patients having chemotherapy-refractory disease. Forty-two patients received an HLA-matched related donor BMT after a cyclophosphamide and antithymocyte globulin-based conditioning that also included thymic irradiation for patients who had not received prior mediastinal radiotherapy. Prophylactic donor leukocyte infusion (pDLI) at a dose of 1 × 107 CD3+ cells per kilogram were given beginning 5 weeks post-BMT to 16 patients with mixed chimerism (MC) but without GVHD, whereas 26 patients did not receive pDLI, either because of GVHD or early relapse. Twelve of 16 patients (75%) receiving pDLI had T cell chimerism at the time of pDLI ≥40%. These patients, by day 100 post-BMT, either converted to full donor chimerism (FDC) (n = 10) or had an increase in or stable donor chimerism (n = 2) after pDLI. Four of 4 patients whose T cell chimerism was ≤20% at the time of pDLI, lost the graft. In contrast, only 5 of 18 evaluable patients (28%) not receiving a pDLI converted to FDC by day 100 post-BMT, 7 maintained MC, and 10 of an evaluable 22 lost the graft. Patients who had undergone a previous autologous stem cell transplant had a higher rate of conversion to FDC (69% v 31%) and higher incidence of GVHD (69% v 34%) compared with those who did not have a previous autologous SCT. Eleven of 16 patients (69%) who received a pDLI achieved a remission with 50% 1-year progression-free survival rate and 44% 3-year overall survival rate. Nineteen of 42 patients (45%) had ≥grade II acute GVHD, including 12 after BMT and 7 after pDLI. Approximately one third of patients, after having initial MC, eventually lost their donor graft. The authors conclude that (1) pDLI has the potential to convert MC to FDC; (2) sustained remissions can be achieved in patients with chemorefractory hematologic malignancies who receive a pDLI, albeit with a significant risk of acute GVHD; and (3) the degree of donor T cell chimerism at the time of pDLI is predictive of the fate of MC, ie, donor T cell chimerism ≥40% or ≤20% at the time of pDLI correlates with conversion of MC or loss of the graft, respectively. © 2003 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
- May 1, 2003
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