Murine bone marrow (BM) NK T cells can suppress graft-vs-host disease, transplant rejection, and MLRs. Human BM contains T cells with similar potential. Human BM was enriched for NK T cells, ∼ 50% of which recognized the nonpolymorphic CD1d molecule. In contrast to the well-characterized blood-derived CD1d-reactive invariant NK T cells, the majority of human BM CD1d-reactive T cells used diverse TCR. Healthy donor invariant NK T cells rapidly produce large amounts of IL-4 and IFN-γ and can influence Th1/Th2 decision-making. Healthy donor BM CD1d-reactive T cells were Th2-biased and suppressed MLR and, unlike the former, responded preferentially to CD1d+ lymphoid cells. These results identify a novel population of human T cells which may contribute to B cell development and/or maintain Th2 bias against autoimmune T cell responses against new B cell Ag receptors. Distinct CD1d-reactive T cell populations have the potential to suppress graft-vs-host disease and stimulate antitumor responses.