A discovery platform for FIU's expertise and scholarly output
High-dose cyclophosphamide + carboplatin and interleukin-2 (IL-2) activated autologous stem cell transplantation followed by maintenance IL-2 therapy in metastatic breast carcinoma - A phase II study
While high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation is associated with higher complete response rates than conventional chemotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC), its role in conferring a survival advantage is unproven. We report the results of a prospective phase II trial of 33 patients accrued between 1996 to 1998 with chemosensitive MBC, who received cyclophosphamide (CS) 2000 mg/m2/day and carboplatin (Cb) 600 mg/m2/day for 3 consecutive days, followed by infusion of peripheral blood stem cells cultured in IL-2 for 24 h on day 0 as adoptive immunotherapy. Low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) was administered from day 0 to +4 and/or +7 to +11, +14 to +18, +21 to +25, then 5 days per month for 11 months to augment a graft-versus-tumor effect. The results of this study were compared to those of a historical control group treated with an identical high-dose Cb + Cy regimen with SCT but without IL-2 treatment. Only gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity was more frequent in the IL-2 cohort (P = 0.0031). At a median follow-up of 18.6 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) is 9 months (2.4-40) and the median OS has not been reached yet. The Kaplan-Meier estimated 2 year PFS is 35%, compared with 17% in the control arm (P = 0.73, and the estimated 2 year OS is 78%, compared with 61% in the control arm (P = 0.22). Multivariate analysis showed that ER status was an independent predictor for OS and PFS, and less chemotherapy prior to HDCSCT predicted for a better PFS. These results show that augmenting HDC with IL-2 activated SCT is well-tolerated. Whether a therapeutic advantage is achievable in patients with MBC remains to be determined.