Bioengineered exosomal extracellular vesicles in cancer therapeutics Article

cited authors

  • Miles, J; Andre, M; Caobi, A; Ruiz, M; Nair, M; Raymond, AD

abstract

  • Liquid or blood-based biopsy is a less invasive and more efficient method in which to clinicians can iden-tify diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic responsive biomarkers in cancer patients. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating tumor cells (CTCs), RNAs, proteins, metabolites, and extracellular vesicles (EVs) are all potential biomarkers found in liquid biopsies. All nucleated cells including healthy, virally infected, and cancer cells release EVs. Since the early 1980s, evidence has mounted to support the pathophysiological role of EVs in cancer. Here we focus on the smallest of the EV, the exosome, and their clinical relevance as nanotherapeutics for cancers. Exosomes obtained from tumors have been reported to promote and/or facilitate malignancy of cancers especially in terms of metastatic potential. Exo-somal EVs have also contributed to the development of therapeutic resistance. Recent studies demonstrate that intrinsic and bioengineered exosomes can serve as effective therapeutic agents that disrupt cancer progression. Here we review the current literature regarding the utilization of bioengineered exosomes for therapeutics to treat prevalent cancers such as melanoma, glioma, breast, pancreatic, hepatic, cervical, prostate, and colon cancers. Overall, studies reviewed show that bioengineered exosomes are effective and promising for targeted cancer therapy.

publication date

  • January 1, 2020

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

start page

  • 177

end page

  • 187

volume

  • 48

issue

  • 3