The nanoparticles have been widely investigated as therapeutic agents for cancer treatments in biomedical fields due to their unique physical/chemical properties, versatile synthetic strategies, easy surface functionalization, and excellent biocompatibility. Even though the advancement of certain treatment techniques is available for the diagnosis of the tumor, still the blood-brain barrier is the obstruction to the delivery of drug molecules to the tumor cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and brain parenchyma. Though nano enabled therapy make promise to deliver the anticancer drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This chapter focuses on the synthesis techniques and advanced characterization techniques adopted to design and develop inorganic nanostructures. Various inorganic nanostructure-based cancer therapeutic agents, including gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotube, earth metal oxide nanoparticles, and other nanostructures, have also been discussed. Related challenges with this research area and future prospect are also discussed herein.