Cancer mortality (1965-77) among 12,652 members of an inbred human religious isolate, the Hutterites, was compared with expectations based on mortality rates for the U.S. white population in 1970. Overall, Hutterites had significantly fewer deaths from cancer than expected (P<0.01), due primarily to fewer lung cancers among males. Smoking is prohibited for this religious group. The most frequent types of cancers were leukemia and cancers of the digestive system, the prostate gland, and the female breast. Preliminary results suggest an association between recessive alleles and childhood leukemia. More stomach and rectal cancers were observed than expected, but differences were generally not significant. Familial aggregates of cancers of the stomach and breast are being investigated. The low frequency of cervical cancer is consistent with current evidence for an association of cervical cancer with early age at first intercourse and promiscuity, neither of which is characteristic of this population.