- Ledbetter, DH; Zachary, JM; Simpson, JL; Golbus, MS; Pergament, E; Jackson, L; Mahoney, MJ; Desnick, RJ; Schulman, J; Copeland, KL; Verlinsky, Y; Yang‐Feng, T; Schonberg, SA; Babu, A; Tharapel, A; Dorfmann, A; Lubs, HA; Rhoads, GG; Fowler, SE; De La Cruz, F
- Cytogenetic data are presented for 11 473 chorionic villus sampling (CVS) procedures from nine centres in the U.S. NICHD collaborative study. A successful cytogenetic diagnosis was obtained in 99.7 per cent of cases, with data obtained from the direct method only (26 per cent), culture method only (42 per cent), or a combination of both (32 per cent). A total of 1.1 per cent of patients had a second CVS or amniocentesis procedure for reasons related to the cytogenetic diagnostic procedure, including laboratory failures (27 cases), maternal cell contamination (4 cases), or mosaic or ambiguous cytogenetic results (98 cases). There were no diagnostic errors involving trisomies for chromosomes 21, 18, and 13. For sex chromosome aneuploidies, one patient terminated her pregnancy on the basis of non‐mosaic 47,XXX in the direct method prior to the availability of results from cultured cells. Subsequent analysis of the CVS cultures and fetal tissues showed only normal female cells. Other false‐positive predictions involving non‐mosaic aneuploidies (n = 13) were observed in the direct or culture method, but these cases involved rare aneuploidies: four cases of tetraploidy, two cases of trisomy 7, and one case each of trisomies 3, 8, 11, 15, 16,20, and 22. This indicates that rare aneuploidies observed in the direct or culture method should be subjected to follow‐up by amniocentesis. Two cases of unbalanced structural abnormalities detected in the direct method were not confirmed in cultured CVS or amniotic fluid. In addition, one structural rearrangement was misinterpreted as unbalanced from the direct method, leading to pregnancy termination prior to results from cultured cells showing a balanced, inherited translocation. False‐negative results (n = 8) were observed only in the direct method, including one non‐mosaic fetal abnormality (trisomy 18) detected by the culture method and seven cases of fetal mosaicism (all detected by the culture method). Mosaicism was observed in 0.8 per cent of all cases, while pseudomosaicism (including single trisomic cells) was observed in 1.6 per cent of cases. Mosaicism was observed with equal frequency in the direct and culture methods, but was confirmed as fetal mosaicism more often in cases from the culture method (24 per cent) than in cases from the direct method (10 per cent). The overall rate of maternal cell contamination was 1.8 per cent for the culture method, but there was only one case of incorrect sex prediction due to complete maternal cell contamination which resulted in the birth of a normal male. The rate of maternal cell contamination was significantly higher in samples obtained by the transcervical sampling method (2. 16 per cent) than in samples obtained by the transabdominal method (0.79 per cent). From these data, it is clear that the culture method has a higher degree of diagnostic accuracy than the direct method, which should not be used as the sole diagnostic technique. The direct method can be a useful adjunct to the culture method, in which maternal cell contamination can lead to incorrect sex prediction and potentially to false‐negative diagnostic results. Copyright © 1992 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- January 1, 1992
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