The global case fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 by continents and national income: A meta-analysis. Other Scholarly Work

Abou Ghayda, Ramy, Lee, Keum Hwa, Han, Young Joo et al. (2022). The global case fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 by continents and national income: A meta-analysis. . 94(6), 2402-2413. 10.1002/jmv.27610

cited authors

  • Abou Ghayda, Ramy; Lee, Keum Hwa; Han, Young Joo; Ryu, Seohyun; Hong, Sung Hwi; Yoon, Sojung; Jeong, Gwang Hum; Yang, Jae Won; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Lee, Jinhee; Lee, Jun Young; Effenberger, Maria; Eisenhut, Michael; Kronbichler, Andreas; Solmi, Marco; Li, Han; Jacob, Louis; Koyanagi, Ai; Radua, Joaquim; Park, Myung Bae; Aghayeva, Sevda; Ahmed, Mohamed LCB; Al Serouri, Abdulwahed; Al-Shamsi, Humaid O; Amir-Behghadami, Mehrdad; Baatarkhuu, Oidov; Bashour, Hyam; Bondarenko, Anastasiia; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrian; Castro, Franz; Cox, Horace; Davtyan, Hayk; Douglas, Kirk; Dragioti, Elena; Ebrahim, Shahul; Ferioli, Martina; Harapan, Harapan; Mallah, Saad I; Ikram, Aamer; Inoue, Shigeru; Jankovic, Slobodan; Jayarajah, Umesh; Jesenak, Milos; Kakodkar, Pramath; Kebede, Yohannes; Kifle, Meron; Koh, David; Males, Visnja K; Kotfis, Katarzyna; Lakoh, Sulaiman; Ling, Lowell; Llibre-Guerra, Jorge; Machida, Masaki; Makurumidze, Richard; Mamun, Mohammed A; Masic, Izet; Van Minh, Hoang; Moiseev, Sergey; Nadasdy, Thomas; Nahshon, Chen; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio A; Yongsi, Blaise N; Nielsen, Henning B; Nodjikouambaye, Zita A; Ohnmar, Ohnmar; Oksanen, Atte; Owopetu, Oluwatomi; Parperis, Konstantinos; Perez, Gonzalo E; Pongpirul, Krit; Rademaker, Marius; Rosa, Sandro; Sah, Ranjit; Sallam, Dina; Schober, Patrick; Singhal, Tanu; Tafaj, Silva; Torres, Irene; Torres-Roman, J Smith; Tsartsalis, Dimitrios; Tsolmon, Jadamba; Tuychiev, Laziz; Vukcevic, Batric; Wanghi, Guy; Wollina, Uwe; Xu, Ren-He; Yang, Lin; Zaidi, Zoubida; Smith, Lee; Shin, Jae Il

fiu authors


  • The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's case fatality rate (CFR) by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. On the basis of data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR was estimated based on the different geographical regions and levels of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially, the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high-income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors, and the mitigatory efforts of individual countries.

publication date

  • June 1, 2022


  • Asia
  • COVID-19
  • Europe
  • Humans
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Socioeconomic Factors

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


  • Print-Electronic

start page

  • 2402

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  • 2413


  • 94


  • 6