Impact of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms on in-vitro metabolism of exemestane by hepatic cytosolic reductases. Article

Platt, Amity, Xia, Zuping, Liu, Ying et al. (2016). Impact of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms on in-vitro metabolism of exemestane by hepatic cytosolic reductases. . 26(8), 370-380. 10.1097/fpc.0000000000000226

cited authors

  • Platt, Amity; Xia, Zuping; Liu, Ying; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip

fiu authors


  • Objective

    Exemestane (EXE) is a potent third-generation aromatase inhibitor used as endocrine therapy in breast cancer treatment and prevention. Characterization of its metabolic pathway is incomplete, with ambiguity existing in the identity of enzymes driving the production of its key metabolite, 17β-dihydroexemestane (17β-DHE). The impact of genetic variation on EXE metabolism is also unknown. This study aims to describe cytosolic reductase involvement in hepatic EXE metabolism and to assess the impact of functional polymorphisms on metabolite production.

    Materials and methods

    Phase I metabolites were identified in incubations of EXE with pooled human liver cytosol or recombinant protein for AKR1Cs and CBR1. Kinetic parameters characterizing EXE reduction were measured for purified wild-type enzymes, and nonsynonymous variants occurring at greater than 1% minor allele frequency using UPLC/MS/MS.


    Human liver cytosol, CBR1, AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, and AKR1C4 reduce EXE to active primary metabolite 17β-DHE. The formation of a novel metabolite, 17α-DHE, was catalyzed by recombinant AKR1C4 and CBR1 in addition to hepatic cytosol. Variants AKR1C3 Arg258Cys and AKR1C4 Gly135Glu had significantly decreased affinity for EXE relative to their respective wild types. Five common AKR1C3 polymorphisms were associated with decreased rates of catalysis, whereas AKR1C4 Gly135Glu increased the velocity of EXE reduction.


    AKR1Cs and CBR1 catalyze EXE reduction in vitro. These results imply that cytosolic ketosteroid reductases may participate in the EXE metabolic pathway in vivo. In addition, several common variants were associated with altered enzymatic activity, suggesting that functional polymorphisms could play an important role in overall EXE metabolism and activity by altering the extent and duration of 17β-DHE exposure.

publication date

  • August 1, 2016


  • Androstadienes
  • Catalysis
  • Cytosol
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Kinetics
  • Liver
  • Metabolomics
  • Oxidoreductases
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


  • Print

start page

  • 370

end page

  • 380


  • 26


  • 8