Despite recent advances, considerable evidence indicates that health disparities and inequities in the United States continue to grow for older adults, particularly older minority adults. Age is a risk factor for chronic illnesses. Older adults often have more than medical concerns that contribute to disparities and inequities. It is incumbent for social workers to consider both medical and non-medical needs for older adults. As a result, there is increasing practice, research and policy foci about the social determinants of health, which encompass non-medical needs to ensure the best possible health outcomes for all older adults. Given this perspective, we provide an overview of gerontological social work literature using components of the National Institute of Minority Health and Health Disparities Research Framework. Using a case study, we discuss several evidence-based assessment and intervention strategies. We end the chapter with future research, practice and policy thoughts, and discussion questions to spur effective research, practice, and policy work to make a difference in the health and well-being of older adults.