Rapid increase in the demand of food products due to the exponential growth of human population along with the global distribution network of food and allied products have posed enormous challenge in recent years to ensure food safety, quality, and authenticity. Although analytical instrument have continued to enhance high resolution, fast analysis, robustness, miniaturization, and portability; analysis of food using these state-of-the-art instrument still requires extensive sample preparation. In fact, sample preparation is often considered as the bottleneck and the most error prone step of the entire analytical workflow. Realizing the significance of sample preparation and its critical role in obtaining quality analytical data, substantial efforts have been made during last two decades to overhaul sample preparation technologies. Current chapter discusses all aspects of food sample preparation including solid phase extraction, liquid phase microextraction, solid-phase microextraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, fabric phase sorptive extraction; highlights the recent developments, discusses their advantages and shortcomings and projects the future outlook.